Stem Cells

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Information

Stem cells are cells whose fate is not yet 'decided'. They can originate various different cell types through a process called 'differentiation'.

TYPOLOGIES:

Depending on their potential, stem cells are subdivided into:

1. totipotent: capable of differentiating into any type of tissue;
2. pluripotent (or multipotent): can only differentiate in certain types of tissue;
3. unipotent: can only differentiate into a specific tissue.

With regard to the site of harvesting, stem cells are divided into:

a. autologous embryonic;
b. fetal;
c. from placental blood;
d. from adults: they are pluripotent and provide tissue maintenance and repair after damage. Already used for bone marrow transplants. These cells are also capable of differentiating into certain types of tissue.

Further scientific studies have now shown that adult stem cells are concentrated in large quantities in abdominal adipose tissue. These then, if isolated and retransplanted, can be used in reconstructive and aesthetic plastic surgery for tissue reconstruction.

APPLICATIONS IN PLASTIC SURGERY

1. Reconstructive and Aesthetic Breast Surgery Breast asymmetry, reconstruction after partial mastectomies; radiotherapy outcomes; additive mastoplasty.

2. Body remodelling: buttocks, soft tissue defects of legs and arms.

3. Scars or skin defects.

4. Face: remodelling cheeks, lips, chin and facial rejuvenation.

5. Facial rejuvenation in combination (or not) with face lifting.

6. Diabetic ulcers.

7. Hand rejuvenation.

Fat is extracted from the abdomen, hips or legs and processed through a machine, from which adult pluripotent stem cells (ADRCs) are then isolated. Once isolated, the stem cells are added in high concentrations to the harvested fat and transplanted back into the areas to be treated using stem-cell enriched fat grafting techniques.
The whole procedure takes about 3-4 hours and can also be performed under local anaesthesia with sedation.
These techniques therefore involve the use of retransplanted stem cells together – or not – with autologous fat.

Benefits

Patients might consider this type of procedure when they want to improve a part of their body naturally as a result of ageing, weight loss, tissue damage, breast volume loss due to breast- feeding and in general to reshape their body.

There are many ways to use one's own fat enriched with stem cells. This can be used on its own in the case of breast augmentation, achieving an increase of one or two sizes. If, on the other hand, the patient wants a larger increase, then fat and stem cells can be combined to cover breast implants and give a more natural result. The choice depends on the patient's wishes and expectations and how much body fat is available.

What are the advantages of this technique?
Stem cell and fat transplantation, like traditional lipofilling, is a more natural way of improving one's body. No foreign bodies (implants, fillers, etc.) are used.

There are many ways to use one's own fat enriched with stem cells. This can be used on its own in the case of breast augmentation, achieving an increase of one or two sizes. If, on the other hand, the patient wants a larger increase, then fat and stem cells can be combined to cover breast implants and give a more natural result. The choice depends on the patient's wishes and expectations and how much body fat is available.

What are the advantages of this technique?
Stem cell and fat transplantation, like traditional lipofilling, is a more natural way of improving one's body. No foreign bodies (implants, fillers, etc.) are used.
The material used is simply one's own fat and stem cells, and harvesting is very easy.
The technique is minimally invasive and allows the surgeon to enrich the fat with a particular type of stem cells (ADRCs).

These cells are adult stem cells and are taken from one's own body and not from embryos or laboratory samples. These stem cells help the fat to survive where transplanted, providing it with blood, oxygen and nutrients. With the help of one's own body fat, moved from one anatomical area to another, the treated areas will appear, to the eye and to the touch, similar to all the others on one's own body.

Fat is extracted from the abdomen, hips or legs and processed through a machine, from which adult pluripotent stem cells (ADRCs) are then isolated. Once isolated, the stem cells are added in high concentrations to the harvested fat and transplanted back into the areas to be treated using stem-cell enriched fat grafting techniques. The whole procedure takes about 3-4 hours and can also be performed under local anaesthesia with sedation.
La tecnica è miniinvasiva e permette al chirurgo di arricchire il grasso con un particolare tipo di cellule staminali (ADRCs). Questo cellule sono staminali adulte e sono prelevate dal proprio corpo e non quindi da embrioni o campioni di laboratorio.

Questo tipo di cellule staminali aiutano il grasso a sopravvivere là dove trapiantato, fornendogli sangue, ossigeno e nutrienti.
Con l’ausilio del proprio grasso corporeo, spostato da un’area anatomica ad un’altra, le zone trattate sembreranno, all’occhio ed al tatto, analoghe a tutte le altre del proprio corpo.

Il grasso viene estratto dall’addome, fianchi o gambe e viene processato attraverso un macchinario e da questo si isolano poi cellule staminali adulte pluripotenti (ADRCs). Una volte isolate, le cellule staminali vengono addizionate in alte concentrazione al grasso prelevato e ritrapiantate nelle zone da trattare con tecniche di “stem-cell enriched fat grafting”. Tutta la procedura dura circa 3-4 ore e può essere eseguita anche in anestesia locale con sedazione.

Post-Surgery

soreness of the treated areas.

The final result will be visible after 2-3 months.
The treated areas will initially appear swollen due to the infiltration used to perform the method: this fluid will gradually be eliminated from the body.

Disadvantages
Like any surgical technique, autologous stem cell and fat transplantation involves risks related to anaesthesia and the surgical operation itself.
This technique sometimes requires several operations in order to achieve the desired result.

The side effects are not yet fully known, but according to the latest scientific studies they are the same as those associated with traditional fat autografts. As it is a very recent technique, it is clearly still under careful scientific evaluation, however all studies conducted so far have given absolutely positive results.

Note

With the use of stem cells, we have entered a new era in Plastic Surgery, which is precisely that of "Natural Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery", where prostheses, fillers and major surgery will be used less and less, giving way to autologous materials.

Although we are still in an early and pioneering phase, stem cells represent the real future of plastic and aesthetic surgery.

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